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    Early on the morning of 26 October, Cuban forces ambushed a patrol from the 2nd Battalion of the th Infantry Regiment near the village of Calliste. The American patrol suffered six wounded and two killed, including the commander of Company B.

    Navy airstrikes and an artillery bombardment by mm howitzers targeting the main Cuban encampment eventually led to their surrender at American forces pushed on to the village of Frequente, where they discovered a Cuban weapons cache reportedly sufficient to equip six battalions.

    Cuban forces ambushed a reconnaissance platoon who were mounted on gun-jeeps, but the jeeps returned fire, and a nearby infantry unit added mortar fire; the Cubans suffered four casualties with no American losses.

    Cuban resistance largely ended after these engagements. The campus police offered light resistance before fleeing, wounding one Ranger, and one of the helicopters crashed on the approach after its blade hit a palm tree.

    The Rangers evacuated the American students by CH Sea Stallion helicopters, but the students informed them that there was a third campus with Americans at Prickly Bay.

    By 27 October, organized resistance was rapidly diminishing, but the American forces did not yet realize this. The Marine 22nd MAU and 8th Regiment continued advancing along the coast and capturing additional towns, meeting little resistance, although one patrol did encounter a single BTR during the night and dispatched it with a M72 LAW.

    The th Infantry Regiment advanced toward Saint George, capturing Grand Anse and discovering American students whom they had missed the first day. They continued to the town of Ruth Howard and the capital of Saint George, meeting only scattered resistance.

    An air-naval gunfire liaison team called in an A-7 airstrike and accidentally hit the command post of the 2nd Brigade, wounding 17 troops, one of whom died.

    They organized an air assault by the 2nd Battalion of the 75th Ranger Regiment preceded by a preparatory bombardment by field howitzers which mostly missed, their shells falling into the ocean , A-7 Corsairs , ACs , and USS Caron.

    However, the Blackhawk helicopters began dropping off troops near the barracks but they approached too fast. One of them crash-landed and the two behind it collided with it, killing three and wounding four.

    The barracks were deserted. In the following days, resistance ended entirely and the Army and Marines spread across the island, arresting PRA officials, seizing caches of weapons, and seeing to the repatriation of Cuban engineers.

    The 19 Grenadian soldiers defending the island surrendered without a fight. This was the last military action of the campaign.

    Official U. The total naval and air superiority of the American forces had overwhelmed the defenders. Nearly 8, soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines had participated in Operation Urgent Fury along with Caribbean allies of the Caribbean Peace Forces.

    American forces sustained 19 killed and wounded; Cuban forces sustained 25 killed, 59 wounded, and combatants captured.

    Grenadian forces suffered 45 dead and wounded; at least 24 civilians were also killed, 18 of whom died in the accidental bombing of a Grenadian mental hospital.

    The US government defended its invasion of Grenada as an action to protect American citizens living on the island, including medical students.

    Deputy Secretary of State Kenneth W. Dam said that action was necessary to "resolve" what Article 28 of the charter of the Organization of American States O.

    He added that the OAS charter and the UN charter both "recognize the competence of regional security bodies in ensuring regional peace and stability," [52] referring to the decision by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to approve the invasion.

    The UN Charter prohibits the use of force by member states except in cases of self-defense or when specifically authorized by the UN Security Council.

    The UN Security Council had not authorized invasion. Time magazine described the invasion as having "broad popular support.

    The group's report caused House Speaker Tip O'Neill to change his position on the issue from opposition to support.

    However, some members of the study group dissented from its findings. Congressman Louis Stokes D, Ohio stated: "Not a single American child nor single American national was in any way placed in danger or placed in a hostage situation prior to the invasion.

    Medical students in Grenada speaking to Ted Koppel on 25 October edition of his newscast Nightline stated that they were safe and did not feel that their lives were in danger.

    Medical students told Koppel the next evening how grateful they were for the invasion and the Army Rangers, which probably saved their lives. State Department officials had assured the medical students that they would be able to complete their medical school education in the United States.

    This was the first military restoration of a Communist nation to its former governance. The Soviet Union said that Grenada had been the object of United States threats, that the invasion violated international law, and that no small nation would find itself safe if the aggression were not rebuffed.

    The governments of some countries stated that the United States intervention was a return to the era of barbarism. The governments of other countries said the United States had violated several treaties and conventions to which it was a party.

    He said, "it didn't upset my breakfast at all. Grenada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations , and it requested help from other Commonwealth members.

    Reagan told her that it might happen; she did not know for sure that it was coming until three hours before. At on the morning of the invasion, Thatcher sent a message to Reagan:.

    This action will be seen as intervention by a Western country in the internal affairs of a small independent nation, however unattractive its regime.

    I must ask you to think most carefully about these points. I cannot conceal that I am deeply disturbed by your latest communication.

    You asked for my advice. I have set it out and hope that even at this late stage you will take it into account before events are irrevocable. Reagan told Thatcher before anyone else that the invasion would begin in a few hours, but ignored her complaints.

    She publicly supported the action. Reagan phoned to apologize for the miscommunication, and the long-term friendly relationship endured.

    The American and Caribbean governments quickly reaffirmed Scoon as Queen Elizabeth's sole legitimate representative in Grenada, and hence the only lawful authority on the island.

    In accordance with Commonwealth constitutional practice, Scoon assumed power as interim head of government and formed an advisory council which named Nicholas Brathwaite as chairman pending new elections.

    American forces remained in Grenada after combat operations finished in December as part of Operation Island Breeze. Elements remaining performed security missions and assisted members of the Caribbean Peacekeeping Force and the Royal Grenadian Police Force, including military police, special forces, and a specialized intelligence detachment.

    Prime Minister Tillman Thomas gave the keynote speech and referred to the renaming as an act of the Grenadian people coming home to themselves.

    The invasion showed problems with the American "information apparatus," which Time magazine described as still being in "some disarray" three weeks after the invasion.

    For example, the State Department falsely claimed that a mass grave had been discovered which held bodies of islanders who had been killed by communist forces.

    Cole's report for the Joint Chiefs of Staff showed an even lower count. Also of concern were the problems that the invasion showed with the military.

    There was a lack of intelligence about Grenada which exacerbated the difficulties faced by the quickly assembled invasion force.

    For example, they did not know that the students were actually at two different campuses, and there was a hour delay in reaching students at the second campus.

    They also did not show topography and were not marked with crucial positions. Navy ships providing naval gunfire and Marine, Air Force, and Navy fighter-bomber support aircraft providing close air support mistakenly killed American ground forces due to differences in charts and location coordinates, data, and methods of calling for fire support.

    Communications between services were also not compatible and hindered the coordination of operations. The landing strip was drawn by hand on the map given to some members of the invasion force.

    Reagan attempted to use the invasion of Grenada to end Vietnam Syndrome , a term used in reference to the American public's aversion to overseas conflicts that resulted from the Vietnam War.

    Our military forces are back on their feet and standing tall. The Department of Defense recognized a need for improved communications and coordination among the branches of the American military.

    Congress investigated many of the problems and passed the Goldwater-Nichols Act of Pub. It increased the power of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and advanced the concept of unified joint forces organized under one command.

    George's University SGU built a monument on its True Blue campus to honor the American servicemen killed during the invasion, and marks the day with an annual memorial ceremony.

    Rear Admiral Richard E. Task Group Two formations of U. Carrier Group Four was allocated the designation Task Group Law Enforcement Detachments.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the French invasion, see Capture of Grenada This section needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

    See also: Grenada since This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Goldwater-Nichols Act.

    See also: Caribbean Peace Force. United States Army. Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 9 November The New York Times.

    Grenada London: Osprey Publishing. CardCow Vintage Postcards. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 25 April The Grenada Papers.

    San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies. Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean. Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith.

    United Nations. Retrieved 5 March Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved 30 July Hayward Crown Forum. Invasion of Grenada: legacy of a flawed victory.

    New York: Greenwood Press. Sutton, Paul K. New York: St. Martin's Press. New York Times. Retrieved 11 March Vincent's Prime Minister to officiate at renaming of Grenada international airport".

    Caribbean Net News newspaper. Archived from the original on 12 June The Downing Street Year. London: HarperCollins.

    Archived from the original on 19 November UN Chronicle. Archived from the original on 27 June Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 16 October Engagements from the Fall of Saigon to Baghdad.

    New York: Penguin. Russell and M. Albert Mendez, Osprey Publishing Ltd. Center for International Affairs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

    The Wars of America. Castle Books. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 6 April Combat Reform. Retrieved 26 December Marine Corps Association and Foundation.

    The following list are working groups of more distant nature relative to HTTP. You can also check the full list of IETF working groups.

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    The main objectives on the first day were for the 75th Ranger Regiment to capture the Point Salines International Airport in order for the 82nd Airborne Division to land reinforcements on the island; the 8th Marine Regiment to capture Pearls Airport ; and other forces to rescue the American students at the True Blue Campus of St.

    George's University. In addition, a number of special operations missions were undertaken by Army Delta Force operatives and Navy SEALs to obtain intelligence and secure key individuals and equipment.

    Many of these missions were plagued by inadequate intelligence, planning, and accurate maps of any kind, and the American forces mostly relied upon tourist maps.

    The Cuban military presence in Grenada was more complex than initially thought. For example, Fidel Castro often described Cuban construction crews deployed overseas as "workers and soldiers at the same time," the dual nature of their role being consistent with Havana's "citizen soldier" tradition.

    The remainder were either medical staff or teachers. He claimed that none of them took any actual part in the fighting. Special Operations Forces were deployed to Grenada beginning on 23 October, before 25 October invasion.

    Butcher, Quartermaster 1st Class Kevin E. In an interview conducted by Bill Salisbury and published on October 4, , Kenneth Butcher's widow claimed that she had gone to Grenada hoping that her husband had survived.

    She said, "There was this fisherman who said he saw four guys in wetsuits come out of the water, and then two days later he saw four bodies being thrown into the water.

    We would like to think the four of them got in that boat, made it to shore, got someplace, and were captured. Another SEAL mission was unsuccessful on 24 October also due to harsh weather, resulting in little intelligence being gathered in advance of the impending intervention.

    A and B companies of the 1st Battalion of the 75th Ranger Regiment embarked on Cs at Hunter Army Airfield at midnight on 24 October to perform an air assault landing on Point Salines International Airport, intending to land at the airport and then disembark.

    But the Rangers had to switch abruptly to a parachute landing when they learned mid-flight that the runway was obstructed.

    AC gunships provided support for the landing. Cuban construction vehicles were commandeered to help clear the airfield, and one was even used to provide mobile cover for the Rangers as they moved to seize the heights surrounding the airfield.

    They cleared the airstrip of obstructions by 10 AM, and transport planes were able to land and unload additional reinforcements, including M Jeeps and members of the Caribbean Peace Force who were assigned to guard the perimeter and detainees.

    Starting at , units began landing at Point Salines from the 82nd Airborne Division under Edward Trobaugh , including battalions of the th Infantry Regiment.

    The Rangers fanned out and secured the surrounding area, including negotiating the surrender of more than Cubans in an aviation hangar.

    However, a Jeep-mounted Ranger patrol became lost searching for True Blue Campus and was ambushed, with four killed.

    The Rangers eventually secured True Blue campus and its students, where they found only students and were told that more were at another campus in Grand Anse.

    In all, the Rangers lost five men on the first day, but succeeded in securing Point Salines and the surrounding area. They found that the beach was lightly defended but unsuitable for an amphibious landing.

    They captured the station unopposed and destroyed the radio transmitter. However, they were attacked by Grenadian forces in cars and an armored personnel carrier APC , which forced the lightly armed SEALs to cut a fence and retreat into the ocean as they received fire from the APC.

    The raid on Richmond Hill Prison lacked vital intelligence, including the fact that several anti-aircraft guns defended it, and that the prison was on a steep hill without room for a helicopter to land.

    Anti-aircraft fire wounded passengers and crew and forced one MH helicopter to crash land, causing another helicopter to land next to it to protect the survivors.

    One pilot was killed, and the Delta Force operators had to be relieved by a Navy Sea King helicopter. The last major special operation was a mission to rescue Governor General Scoon from his mansion in Saint George, Grenada.

    The mission departed late at on 25 October from Barbados, resulting in the Grenadian forces being already aware of the invasion and they guarded Scoon closely.

    The Marine tank crews continued advancing in the face of sporadic resistance, knocking out a BRDM-2 armored car. An A-7 raid on Fort Frederick targeting anti-aircraft guns hit a nearby mental hospital, killing 18 civilians.

    General Trobaugh of the 82nd Airborne Division had two goals on the second day: securing the perimeter around Salines Airport, and rescuing American students held in Grand Anse.

    The Army lacked undamaged helicopters after the losses on the first day and consequently had to delay the student rescue until they made contact with Marine forces.

    Early on the morning of 26 October, Cuban forces ambushed a patrol from the 2nd Battalion of the th Infantry Regiment near the village of Calliste.

    The American patrol suffered six wounded and two killed, including the commander of Company B. Navy airstrikes and an artillery bombardment by mm howitzers targeting the main Cuban encampment eventually led to their surrender at American forces pushed on to the village of Frequente, where they discovered a Cuban weapons cache reportedly sufficient to equip six battalions.

    Cuban forces ambushed a reconnaissance platoon who were mounted on gun-jeeps, but the jeeps returned fire, and a nearby infantry unit added mortar fire; the Cubans suffered four casualties with no American losses.

    Cuban resistance largely ended after these engagements. The campus police offered light resistance before fleeing, wounding one Ranger, and one of the helicopters crashed on the approach after its blade hit a palm tree.

    The Rangers evacuated the American students by CH Sea Stallion helicopters, but the students informed them that there was a third campus with Americans at Prickly Bay.

    By 27 October, organized resistance was rapidly diminishing, but the American forces did not yet realize this. The Marine 22nd MAU and 8th Regiment continued advancing along the coast and capturing additional towns, meeting little resistance, although one patrol did encounter a single BTR during the night and dispatched it with a M72 LAW.

    The th Infantry Regiment advanced toward Saint George, capturing Grand Anse and discovering American students whom they had missed the first day. They continued to the town of Ruth Howard and the capital of Saint George, meeting only scattered resistance.

    An air-naval gunfire liaison team called in an A-7 airstrike and accidentally hit the command post of the 2nd Brigade, wounding 17 troops, one of whom died.

    They organized an air assault by the 2nd Battalion of the 75th Ranger Regiment preceded by a preparatory bombardment by field howitzers which mostly missed, their shells falling into the ocean , A-7 Corsairs , ACs , and USS Caron.

    However, the Blackhawk helicopters began dropping off troops near the barracks but they approached too fast.

    One of them crash-landed and the two behind it collided with it, killing three and wounding four. The barracks were deserted.

    In the following days, resistance ended entirely and the Army and Marines spread across the island, arresting PRA officials, seizing caches of weapons, and seeing to the repatriation of Cuban engineers.

    The 19 Grenadian soldiers defending the island surrendered without a fight. This was the last military action of the campaign.

    Official U. The total naval and air superiority of the American forces had overwhelmed the defenders. Nearly 8, soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines had participated in Operation Urgent Fury along with Caribbean allies of the Caribbean Peace Forces.

    American forces sustained 19 killed and wounded; Cuban forces sustained 25 killed, 59 wounded, and combatants captured.

    Grenadian forces suffered 45 dead and wounded; at least 24 civilians were also killed, 18 of whom died in the accidental bombing of a Grenadian mental hospital.

    The US government defended its invasion of Grenada as an action to protect American citizens living on the island, including medical students.

    Deputy Secretary of State Kenneth W. Dam said that action was necessary to "resolve" what Article 28 of the charter of the Organization of American States O.

    He added that the OAS charter and the UN charter both "recognize the competence of regional security bodies in ensuring regional peace and stability," [52] referring to the decision by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to approve the invasion.

    The UN Charter prohibits the use of force by member states except in cases of self-defense or when specifically authorized by the UN Security Council.

    The UN Security Council had not authorized invasion. Time magazine described the invasion as having "broad popular support.

    The group's report caused House Speaker Tip O'Neill to change his position on the issue from opposition to support.

    However, some members of the study group dissented from its findings. Congressman Louis Stokes D, Ohio stated: "Not a single American child nor single American national was in any way placed in danger or placed in a hostage situation prior to the invasion.

    Medical students in Grenada speaking to Ted Koppel on 25 October edition of his newscast Nightline stated that they were safe and did not feel that their lives were in danger.

    Medical students told Koppel the next evening how grateful they were for the invasion and the Army Rangers, which probably saved their lives.

    State Department officials had assured the medical students that they would be able to complete their medical school education in the United States.

    This was the first military restoration of a Communist nation to its former governance. The Soviet Union said that Grenada had been the object of United States threats, that the invasion violated international law, and that no small nation would find itself safe if the aggression were not rebuffed.

    The governments of some countries stated that the United States intervention was a return to the era of barbarism.

    The governments of other countries said the United States had violated several treaties and conventions to which it was a party.

    He said, "it didn't upset my breakfast at all. Grenada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations , and it requested help from other Commonwealth members.

    Reagan told her that it might happen; she did not know for sure that it was coming until three hours before. At on the morning of the invasion, Thatcher sent a message to Reagan:.

    This action will be seen as intervention by a Western country in the internal affairs of a small independent nation, however unattractive its regime.

    I must ask you to think most carefully about these points. I cannot conceal that I am deeply disturbed by your latest communication.

    You asked for my advice. I have set it out and hope that even at this late stage you will take it into account before events are irrevocable.

    Reagan told Thatcher before anyone else that the invasion would begin in a few hours, but ignored her complaints.

    She publicly supported the action. Reagan phoned to apologize for the miscommunication, and the long-term friendly relationship endured.

    The American and Caribbean governments quickly reaffirmed Scoon as Queen Elizabeth's sole legitimate representative in Grenada, and hence the only lawful authority on the island.

    In accordance with Commonwealth constitutional practice, Scoon assumed power as interim head of government and formed an advisory council which named Nicholas Brathwaite as chairman pending new elections.

    American forces remained in Grenada after combat operations finished in December as part of Operation Island Breeze.

    Elements remaining performed security missions and assisted members of the Caribbean Peacekeeping Force and the Royal Grenadian Police Force, including military police, special forces, and a specialized intelligence detachment.

    Prime Minister Tillman Thomas gave the keynote speech and referred to the renaming as an act of the Grenadian people coming home to themselves. The invasion showed problems with the American "information apparatus," which Time magazine described as still being in "some disarray" three weeks after the invasion.

    For example, the State Department falsely claimed that a mass grave had been discovered which held bodies of islanders who had been killed by communist forces.

    Cole's report for the Joint Chiefs of Staff showed an even lower count. Also of concern were the problems that the invasion showed with the military.

    There was a lack of intelligence about Grenada which exacerbated the difficulties faced by the quickly assembled invasion force.

    For example, they did not know that the students were actually at two different campuses, and there was a hour delay in reaching students at the second campus.

    They also did not show topography and were not marked with crucial positions. Navy ships providing naval gunfire and Marine, Air Force, and Navy fighter-bomber support aircraft providing close air support mistakenly killed American ground forces due to differences in charts and location coordinates, data, and methods of calling for fire support.

    Communications between services were also not compatible and hindered the coordination of operations. The landing strip was drawn by hand on the map given to some members of the invasion force.

    Reagan attempted to use the invasion of Grenada to end Vietnam Syndrome , a term used in reference to the American public's aversion to overseas conflicts that resulted from the Vietnam War.

    Our military forces are back on their feet and standing tall. The Department of Defense recognized a need for improved communications and coordination among the branches of the American military.

    Congress investigated many of the problems and passed the Goldwater-Nichols Act of Pub. It increased the power of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and advanced the concept of unified joint forces organized under one command.

    George's University SGU built a monument on its True Blue campus to honor the American servicemen killed during the invasion, and marks the day with an annual memorial ceremony.

    Rear Admiral Richard E. Task Group Two formations of U. Carrier Group Four was allocated the designation Task Group Law Enforcement Detachments.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the French invasion, see Capture of Grenada This section needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

    January Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Grenada since This section does not cite any sources.

    Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Goldwater-Nichols Act. See also: Caribbean Peace Force. United States Army.

    Archived from the original PDF on 16 November Retrieved 9 November The New York Times. Grenada London: Osprey Publishing.

    CardCow Vintage Postcards. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 25 April The Grenada Papers. San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies.

    Oxford: Macmillan Caribbean. Margaret Thatcher: At her Zenith. United Nations. Retrieved 5 March It is open to any interested individual. The following list are working groups of more distant nature relative to HTTP.

    You can also check the full list of IETF working groups. Also check out the IETF meeting page for the latest information.

    W3C liability , trademark , document use and software licensing rules apply. Your interactions with this site are in accordance with our public and Member privacy statements.

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